Music as an Engine of Development: An opportunity?

In this article experiences and concepts on the capacity of the music as a tool for Rural Development.

(Information taken of my Master thesis: "Cultural identity and Development: Music as a Tool for Rural Development in the Parish of Chuquiribamba, Ecuador"

The rural development strategies that use the value of cultural aspects are increasingly more relevant and visible in european countries. However, these can be a useful tool in developing countries where, in general, it is possible to observe a important cultural heritage which form an indivisible part of their identity. These countries tend to be less influenced by the effects of globalization and, in general, suffer less of an impact due to external elements.

This type of experience based on the culture as a factor of development, respond to the need to establish innovative proposals that seek to the start value of other resources of the territory. Proposals whose central axis include aspects such as the value addedthe quality in front of quantity or the protection of cultural heritage. Proposals in which the territory transcends the purely productive towards a integrative approach.

Javier Ballesteros taller música en zimbabwe

To do this, you must approach the music from a multi-functional approach, as tool that can help to solve problems own rural as the depopulation, the social inclusion, the gender equality, or the improvement of the quality of life in general.

A visible example on how it has revitalized social and economically in the rural environment through music is the Festival Music in Safe. Its director, Daniel Broncano, is a classical musician originally from the village of Orcera (Jaén), whose emotional bond with music started as a child, when, by chance, she attends with her family to a concert of symphonic music. This festival has served to promote social change and enhancement of the rural, that even continued in the context of global crisis, incorporating creative and innovative ideas through digital tools. The interest or quality of the proposals is evidenced by the conservation of sponsors, partners and participants during the edition of the year 2020, in the era of health crisis COVID19.

On the other hand, the music has also served to visualize traditions that foster inequality in countries where they still persist marked gender roles. In Burkina Fasoartist Kalam Kundé has been shown prohibitions ancestral to prevent the emancipation of women, to the time that it has served as an encouragement to the women of her community.

Finally, an example of strengthening of the cultural identity and the conservation of cultural heritage through music, is located in the peruvian singer Renata Flores. His musical proposal is based on the use of the quechua language, which blends with the music of the world. The artist, in addition to achieve a significant international impact, has contributed to the dissemination, protection and enhancement of their culture.

What would be possible through music, improve the utilization of the resources that we have an integrated way?


My personal and professional experience in the rural world over many years of exercise, as well as my relationship with the various actors involved in the cultural manifestations actively, have made me reflect on the importance of culture as an element of territorial cohesion, and as the basis of development work. The insertion of the culture as one of the central axes of a company moderna and cohesive in the processes of regional integration.

Historically, the culture suffers significantly the negative consequences caused by the different economic crises. There seems to be a perception that the culture, and the artistic manifestations, are not a necessity of the first order and are not very useful to establish development strategies which contributes to improving the quality of life in the environment. You forfeit the benefits that could introduce objectives of cultural concerns in development policies and programmes, and their effects on the strengthening of the social cohesion and cultural identity.

The crisis stemming from the COVID19 it seems to re-position the cultural sector in a situation of extreme vulnerability despite the relevance that seems to have adopted. It has demonstrated the need of the culture for both rural and urban communities. Almost spontaneous, the culture in its various expressions has united us. Have created or strengthened links between communitiesand has served as support during this period to cope with the states of anxiety and uncertainty. In contrast, the reality of the cultural sector seems to be racing back to the ostracism and helplessness on the part of public policies. For example, in Ecuador, have been suspended or drastically reduced public projects related to the cultural sector, for the benefit of other sectors traditionally been of major significance for the State or the population (Program “Art for alls” of the Ministry of Culture and Heritage, International Festival of the Arts Alive in Loja, etc).

For this reason, it is particularly interesting to propose studies on culture and development in this current context, when once more the culture and the rural areas seem to suffer a high degree of vulnerability.

In times of crisis, only imagination is more important than knowledge."
Albert Einstein.


Below, we will establish a framework of definitions, assumptions, and experiences related to the use of the culture (music) as a development tool. In the first place, they are exposed references, events, and situations are relevant directly related to the culture and development, to later delve into the concept of music, from a multi-functional approach, is presented as a means facilitator of rural development. (ORTIZ, 2011:3).


If I had to re-start the construction of Europe, I would do it for the culture"

(Jean Monnet, 1976.)[1]

[1] Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (1888-1979), economist regarded as one the founding fathers of the European Union. Quote taken from the article's digital newspaper, the COUNTRY the day 10/12/2008

Integrated Development

Valcárcel Resalt (1987) defines the integrated development as a holistic approach, which seeks to transform the socio-economic sectors of the area considering their interdependencies towards common goalswith the aim of reaching conclusions of synthesis, to facilitate decision making under a prism integrator (quoted by DÍAZ, 2000:72).

In relation to the rural, Etxezarreta Zubizarreta believes the integrated development as a series of activities-agricultural and non-agricultural support each other each other, goal-oriented, but in search of improvements in the system as a whole rural. What, therefore, considered as a valid concept for the planning that provides a conceptual framework within which it can be identified links interrelacionales between the different components of the territory (ETXEZARRETA, 1988:96, quoted by DÍAZ, 2000:72).

Thus, it covers the rural environment as a wholein that activities that are in principle not seem to maintain a relationship among themselves, are to a greater or lesser extent, linked.

Under this inclusive concept, factors or cultural elements have their incidence, not only in agriculture, but in the whole of the productive fabric and the human environment.

On the other hand, the various definitions of rural development are modified in order to perceive more clearly the complexity and diversity of the factors that make up these territories.

Rural societies have presented structural changes motivated, in part, by the global development model. These changes determine a new focus on the definitions and strategies of rural development to adapt to these changes. For example, in regard to the agricultural sector is imperative that both policies such as agricultural activities are committed to the enhancement of the quality and innovation in front of the exclusive promotion of productivity and competitiveness.

The rural environment is a dynamic space that transcends the purely agricultural and is closely related to the activities that occur in your environment. So, maintains ties of exchange with the urban environment, not only in the provision of goods, but in the contribution of goods and services as the development of the culture, the conservation of natural resources or the provision of tourist areas with low population density (PÉREZ, 2001:17-18).

Culture and Development

“Culture is the end and the means of development”

   (L. S. Senghor, 1906-2001)[1]

[1] Poet senegalese (1906-2001). Quoted in DÍAZ and GENTLEMAN, 2020.

Culture and development are concepts that have historically been linked to context and even conflicting. However, in recent years, you can find items, tools and interventions that promote a more significant to the linkage between development and culture (TANGLE, 2010:2).

The concept of DEVELOPMENT has undergone many transformations over time. Here we performed a brief review of its main definitions.

It was the decade of the fiftiesthis concept is influenced heavily by connotations economic, acquiring as target material progress. Under this conception of economic progress, the structural transformation from rural to urban, from agricultural to industrial, in short, from the ancient to the modern.

Subsequently, from the eighties, imposed the concept of human development and, especially, the concept of sustainable development since the Rio Summit in 1992 (UBILLA-BRAVO, 2017). It is from then when the culture starts to appear as a factor essential for the development, as set out in the Stockholm Action Plan of 1998, in which it stressed that “the sustainable development and the rise of the culture are mutually dependent” (STOCKHOLM ACTION PLAN, 1998:13).

When the development has been quantified in terms of economic progress, the culture has been perceived, at times, as a hurdle that could slow down the pace of the progress. This was picked up by a group of experts assembled by the United Nations in 1951 led to the design of policies and actions for the economic development of the underdeveloped countries.

Somehow, the economic progress fast can lead to painful adjustments. The philosophies ancestral must be eradicated; old social institutions have to disintegrate; bonds of caste, creed and race have to be broken; and large masses of people are unable to follow the pace of progress must see dashed their expectations of a comfortable life. Very few communities are willing to pay the price of economic progress. (United nations, 1951, cited in ESCOBAR, 2007:20).

This concept of development has put at risk the sustainability of multiple cultures through the promotion of its homogenization. In the year of 1970 when held in Venice the first UNESCO conference dedicated to the cultural policies. During the meeting covered a variety of topics such as were: the place that culture plays in the contemporary world; the responsibilities of states with respect to cultural life; the part of the culture in the economic and social development or the need to safeguard cultural values. Among the resolutions that were obtained at the conference are the following (UNESCO, 1970:15-20):

  1. Strengthen, by the culture and information, with its action in favour of peace and understanding admissions and, in consequence, to take appropriate action against the production, publication and circulation of works that incite hatred among nations, violence and war.
  2. Encourage cultural exchanges between the Member States, as well as exchanges of information and research on topics of common interest.
  3. Devote a major section of your program to the problems of culture in the service of international understanding and peace.
  4. Look for the ways and means of helping Member States to ensure the protection of indigenous cultures against external influences harmful.
  5. Organize, in the benefit of developing countries in international exchange of experience on the preservation of national cultures and strengthen accordingly, your program of training and scholarships.
  6. Include in your program-specific projects for the promotion and record of the oral traditions.
  7. Undertake a study to identify areas of Latin America most affected by the rapid disappearance of the values of national popular under the impact of the new media forms of information, business and determine the best way in which UNESCO could help the conservation of these values.
  8. That, at the national level, each state have in teaching is to pay more attention to instill the appreciation of the cultural heritage and the need to respect it.

 Later, in the Mexico conference (1982) reaffirmed the value of culture as a strategic component for the achievement of comprehensive development in which cultural differences are no longer seen as obstacles to be seen as opportunities.

Currently, the development is ethically justifiable only if it is sustainable, culturally and environmentallyand if you take into account in their formulation of cultural differences. In this sense, the development is positive when it is built from the negotiation between different cultures, and when he assures that the planning processes are collective and express the dreams and the identities of the actors for him to benefit.

Definitions of Cultural UNESCO

Due to the variety of meanings that words have culture, cultural identity, cultural events, cultural heritage, cultural property and cultural diversity, for the purposes of this work has opted for referencing their definitions according to UNESCO.



It is considered as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs (UNESCO, 2001:1).


Cultural identity

The concept of cultural identity involves a sense of belonging to a social group with which they share cultural traits, such as customs, values and beliefs. The identity is not a fixed, but rather recreates it, individually and collectively, and is fed continuously from external influences.

The cultural identity of a people is defined historically through multiple aspects in which plasma is the culture, the language, an instrument of communication between the members of a community, social relationships, rites and ceremonies of their own, or collective behavior, that is, the systems of values and beliefs (...) A distinctive feature of these elements of cultural identity, is its intangible and anonymous, as these are the product of the collective” (GONZÁLEZ, 2000: 43).

For example, events such as festivals, ritual processions, music or dance. These cultural representations of great public impact, the UNESCO has registered under the concept of “intangible cultural heritage” (ROMERO, 2005: 62).


Cultural Events

Are those expressions that result from the creativity of individuals, groups and societies, and that have cultural content (UNESCO, 2017).


Cultural Heritage

The set of goods that characterize the creativity of a people and that distinguish societies and social groups from each other, giving them their sense of identity, be they inherited or late production (UNESCO, 2017).


Cultural Heritage Material

Tangible cultural heritage is composed of movable and immovable property, whose materiality is a container of values historical, social, and symbolic of the peoples. These can be monuments, sculptures, architectural ensembles, such as cities, or other like landscapes, urban or rural.

Intangible Cultural Heritage

The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (UNESCO, 2003:4) argues that it is understood by the Intangible Cultural Heritage uses, representations, expressions, knowledge and techniques, in conjunction with the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces that are inherent; that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.

Part of the intangible heritage languages, stories and folk tales, music and dance, martial arts, festivals, culinary arts or crafts.


Cultural property

Consumer goods that convey ideas, symbols and ways of life. Inform or entertain, help to build an individual and collective identity and influence in the cultural practices. They are the result of the creativity of individual or collective (UNESCO, 2017).


Goods Mixed

They are places that have exceptional value by combining natural heritage and cultural heritage. (UNESCO, 2004:5).


Cultural diversity 

Refers to the multiplicity of ways in which the cultures of groups and societies. These expressions are passed on within and among groups and societies. Cultural diversity is made manifest not only through the varied ways in which it is expressed, augmented and transmitted the cultural heritage of the humanity by the variety of cultural expressions, but also through diverse modes of artistic creation, production, dissemination, distribution and enjoyment of cultural expressions, whatever the means and technologies used. (UNESCO, 2013:7). 


“I didn't know that my culture was worth.

 It is the culture that borda my life

 like my tissues, and my knowledge,

now also I can sell.”

(Simona Cutipa, 2006)[1]

[1] Simona Cutipa is handmade of Chivay, Southern highlands of Peru. Quote taken from the work of the RIMISP, on territories with cultural identity (Ranaboldo, 2006:1).

There seems to be some growing interest in rural development strategies that are associated with goods and services with cultural identityas the agricultural products, the value of which can be associated with attributes of health, sustainability or correct relationship between producers and consumers, as well as the tourist services related to the identity and customs of the territory. These strategies are based on the assumption of the generalized increase in the demand for goods and services, with symbolic attributes that give priority to quality over productivity. For your use, the use of goods and services with cultural identity involves the legal recognition. That is, the application of mechanisms and regulations, which allow the collective appropriation of these goods and services that traditionally were considered to be free to access. To a large extent, these arguments are especially associated with rural territories, since they usually contain a cultural identity is less affected for the external inputs. (FONTE and RANABOLDO, 2007:9-12).

From this approach, the culture is incorporated from three different ways to the development of the territory. On the one hand, from a paper evaluative, which allows you to select and rank values. In the second place, from a paper constituent, which allows and encourages creativity and expression of people. Finally, a instrumental roleas a product or resource that allows you to achieve better well-being.

In your role constituentthe culture may serve as an impetus to activate and develop the local resources from innovative approaches and creative, that can serve to develop a territorial brand that also contribute to this process of social construction of the territory.

In your role evaluative, allows you to select the heritage resources that could become factors of production that can be evaluated in the production process (FONTE and RANABOLDO, 2007:19).

Finally, since its focus instrumental the culture affects the set of products that can be valued in the economy. For our study area, are especially relevant cultural products specific. These are considered as the set of unique aspects (cultural, natural, etc) of a given territory that can be arranged to be valued at the local level (village festivals, cuisine, music, etc).

It is important to take in count that this type of development strategies of territorial require, in great measure, of collective actors (producers ' associations, associations of culture, public institutions and local, etc), and their coordination towards a common goal: economic development and social territory. (FONTE and RANABOLDO, 2007:27-28).

Taking as a premise that culture is, in itself, a fundamental rightwith an intrinsic value (not market) of the entire community, deepens below on the factors that affect their economic valuation in the territory.

The strategies of valorization of the culture and cultural identity in rural areas, are related to, especially with their typical productions. This way, you can understand that the protection of the typical products, in turn, entails the protection of cultural and natural heritage. Among the attributes value of a product or service are some that, although they cannot be directly observed (source, type of production process, etc), are arguments of utility for consumers.

In this way, through the culture it is possible to provide additional features, products and services in a given territoryin search of purchasing a market value higher than the starting point.


“To know western attempts to, from twenty-five centuries ago, to see the world.

Has failed to understand that the world does not see, hear. Don't read, listen.

(...) we must learn to judge a company by its noise, for its art and

by your festivities more than your statistics”[1].

[1] Quote taken from the Essay on the political economy of music (Attali, 1995:11).

Music: Art and Science

As the possible perspectives about the music are numerous, we will take as our starting point the definition set forth in the book Music Theory, to be a classic and a benchmark in the study from a perspective essentially theoretical: music is the art which is expressed by combining the sound and the rhythm (DANHAUSER, 1872:1). This conceptualization of the music, essentially theoretical, the Dictionary Ideological of the Spanish Language, you added a emotional component defining it as “the art of combining sounds of the human voice and/or instruments, stirring sensitivity, whether joyful or sadly” (REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA, 2001).

The music is, on the one hand, an art. It is considered as one of the arts most widespread and with a greater capacity for communication (possibly the most ancient form of expression), which arises prior to the word, and that has accompanied humanity since its origins. The first sound objects that used the mankind were linked to his body (belts, necklaces, bracelets, etc), in addition to using your own voice, body, feet or hands. He also discovered that some utensils and weapons to be touched, rubbed or blown, produced sound. For example, the hunting bow is considered as the first stringed instrument. Later, it evolved into musical instruments stringed instruments more complex, as would be the poliarcos, that there were more than several arches linked to a body of instrument is common. With respect to instruments of air (wind), it is likely that the first occurrence of 40,000 years ago, when it first began to use fire, and was employed, for the first time, a hollow cane to quicken.

On the other hand, the music is also considered a science because in the same configuration are contained requirements and disciplines that humanity has created. In the music you are surrounded by other sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, physiology, anthropology, and philosophy. For example, the mathematical structure of the school of music has been the subject of study for mathematicians or philosophers. Already in the sixth century d.C in the Treaty on the music written by San Severino Boethius, who developed and extended the principles enunciated by the thinkers of the school of Pythagoras, it is considered that the music was one of the sciences that allowed to reach the wisdom. Therefore, it is called as the quadrivium (or quadruple), towards the wisdom of the four mathematical sciences for excellence: the music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy (TURCHETTA, 2018:64) .

Music as a Means of Development

The music in a well, a right in itself, that has to be preserved, maintained, disseminated, and to which access must be provided to all over the world.

However, it is also a means of development due to your ability to act in different areas of the socio-economic fabric of the territory, thus contributing to the unification and social cohesion, to educational outreach and awareness-raising.

Before you begin to study different areas where the music can be considered as a tool to facilitate development, it is considered important to emphasize its emotional component indivisible that it has on people.

Studies neural demonstrate that music has the ability to change moods acting on the structures emotional brain. When listening to music activates areas of the brain that are responsible for the imitation and empathy. Some scientists indicate that nothing has an impact that is so important about the brain as the music.

While they produce sounds by the brain hears and coordinates generating an emotional activity. From the neuroscience refer to the significant ability of the music to enable each of the structures of our emotional brain, changing moods among the people. The music able to evoke the core, the core of the brain structures responsible and the creators of our universe, and emotional (KOELSH and PUNSET, 2011).

This emotional component an essential feature in the use of music as a means of development in a given environment. Find out what type of music generates emotions in a territory, or in a particular segment of the population, is a necessary element to design a strategy for the development of these features. It is for this reason that it is not a determinant specify a typology of specific music to set development interventions through the music, as this will depend on the contextualization of the territory and the sensitivity of its inhabitants, as compared to her.

Below, we explore the ability of music as a means of development in different areasespecially within the rural environment. On the basis of a multi-functional approach of the music, it analyzes its capacity to address common problems of the rural environment as depopulation, gender equality, or economy. It is important to note that on occasions, these problems are interrelated, and the contribution of music as a facilitator of development must be understood in a holistic and comprehensive manner.

1. Music: Economy and Revitalization of the territory

Their ability to foster creativity, it is especially useful to facilitate and promote new innovative start-ups. In addition, their impact on the cultural identity of the territory can help to generate value-added products and services.

 Finally, the music industry is in itself a relevant sector within the global economy, not only as a particular sector within the set that make up the calls Cultural Industries, but also as an irrigator of products that are used by the remainder of these sectors, such as radio and television, the film industry or the video game and also as a fundamental component of other sectors such as consumer electronics, advertising, telecommunications.

In Ecuadoraccording to data of the General Society of Authors and Composers of the Equator (SAYCE), in the year of 2019 it earned a total revenue of 7.742.281 dollars through the administration of the economic rights of authors over their works.

In Spain are becoming more and more frequent initiatives that bind music and territories through festivals that put in value the rural environment and serve as a dynamic element of the local economy in the regions where it is made. Some examples are: The Festival Trails of Music in Arroyomolinos de León, which brings together music and nature (Huelva); the Festival LeturAlma in Letur (Albacete), which focused its message in the fight against depopulation; the Demand Folk in Tolbaños de Arriba (Burgos), on traditional music and identity; The Beret Fest against depopulation in Arenillas (Soria): The Center on Holiday Aracena (Huelva), where the music, fashion, and theater serve to promote the local consumption, or the above-mentioned Music Festival in Safe Segura de la Sierra (Jaén), where the classical music and the unique spaces they acquire special significance.

Finally, it is interesting to note that the revitalization of territories sometimes occurs spontaneously, without whom there has been a previous strategy to do this. For example, we may cite the experience in the village of San Miguel del Arroyo (Valladolid). When you move out of that town musician Carlos Soto (Celtic), there was a social transformation and were activated choirs and groups of traditional music. In addition, the approach to the territory through the music, he served as a musician to positively integrate into their new community (RTVE, 2019).

2. Music: Education and social Inclusion

Music can be used as a teaching resource by its ability to promote the development of intellectual, motor, and language in children, through the strengthening of cognitive processes such as memory, attention, perception and motivation.

Represents, therefore, a resource for the generation of meaningful spaces of learning that make the education through music, a pillar of the comprehensive development for each of the stages of the development of human beings, and of children in particular (SMITH, 2014:102-103).

The music represents a tool of connection between different cultures. Students can get closer to their culture from the musical point of view, their folklore, their songs and dances, their music; in essence the heritage that surrounds them, allows to establish emotional ties with the territory. Taking into account that many young people must abandon their rural environment to pursue higher studies, mostly in urban areas, establishing positive links and emotive with their rural area, it might help in the future, these young people to decide to return and apply their knowledge in their rural area. In short, as tool against the depopulation of rural (BOTTLE et al., 2014:83).

With respect to the social inclusionin Ecuador, there are examples on the use of music as a tool facilitator. In the city of Loja is located the group Are “Special”, formed by young people with different disabilities . Has the direction of Mr. Osman Vasquez who has managed to consolidate this group as a national benchmark that even has enabled them to act in different cities and countries, which has assumed a strong stimulus and personal growth for its components.

In the school of Music, and COUNTLESS of the city of Loja was implemented the Project of Educational Inclusion Musical (2017), that allows to provide the educational services to children with Special Educational Needs SEN, in which they can develop musical skills in an inclusive environment that generates self-esteem, strengthen your individuality and to encourage its link with the society through artistic activities as a group.

Finally, also known experiences of the use of the music to the social reintegration in environments prison. For example, in Paraguay, through the Project ' Music in Prisons for the social Reintegration, the internal make up of songs, get music classes, attend concerts or are building workshops musical instruments.

3. Music and Gender Equality

According to UNESCO (2014:104), by gender equality it is understood the existence of equal opportunities and equal rights between women and men in the private and public spheres that provides and ensures the possibility of realizing the life they want. Currently, it is recognized at the international level that gender equality is a key part of sustainable development and integrated, object of this work.

In the first place, the relationship between gender equality and the music could be covered as a reflection of the society itself where there have been norms, behaviors, and artistic trends that have perpetuated an inequality of gender, and have instituted an arbitrary assignment of roles based on the sex. In addition, this discrimination was artistic evidence to a greater extent in the rural worldwhere are most entrenched certain social and cultural aspects.

Women historically have not had the means, or the training proper, to thrive in the musical world. The fact that the musicological studies have been elitist delayed the incorporation of women, especially made for classical music (FIELD, 2010:157-159). In addition, during certain periods in history, the church made it difficult to practice musical to the female, recommend your musical education, apart from those belonging to a religious order (GALINDO, 2015:4).

In the flamencoone of the musics of identity; the more significant of Spain, the role of the woman has been marked by its exclusion of the places and environments where historically played. This last is particularly significant in the small number of women guitarists (or invisibility), a fact that in recent years, due to advances in the area of equality, seems to be disappearing.

In the second place, music can serve as a tool to counter gender discrimination and the negative stereotypes associated with the genre, making it easy to visualize problems of equality in different territories, and to serve as tangible evidence of progress in this regard.

A current example on how music has served to visualize traditions that foster inequality in countries where they still persist marked gender roles, is located in the above mentioned artist burkinabé Kalam Kundé. Through the music, the artist has shown prohibitions ancestral to prevent the emancipation of women in her country, and this fact has served as a stimulus towards the women of his territory with respect to their right to equality and freedom (COUNTRY, 2020).

4. Music and Health

According to the National Association for Music Therapy and EE. UU, music therapy is the use of music in the achievement of therapeutic objectives: the restoration, maintenance and improvement of the health, both mental and physical (POCH. I, 1999:40, cited in SANZ, 2001:20).

The music therapy has been considered as a therapeutic way of non-verbal communication as applied to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of possible difficulties or disorders that present people (MARTÍ, 2000). Since 1950, it has to rank scientific and is taught as an academic discipline in universities, centres of expertise and organizations.

It has been used in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Your treatment through music is based on the direct relationship between chronic stress suffered by the individual in the last years of his life, and the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, such as depression or anxiety (THE BLONDE, SANCHO and CABAÑÉS, 2014). In addition, the use of music therapy, by its ability to stimulate the brain, facilitates the recall of events or people to this type of patients (TOBAR, 2013: 34).

Although the therapy can be considered a science relatively moderna, and used primarily in more developed countries, there are examples that show otherwise. The musicologist Polo Vallejo during his work of description and analysis of the ethnicity of the Wagogo, Tanzania, was able to verify as they used certain rites music for medicinal purposes. For example, the use of certain rhythms expressed through instruments percussion to combat conditions related to the headaches.

Javier Ballesteros Zimbabwe actuación en orfanato


The rural development strategies that use the value of cultural aspects are becoming more relevant and visible, while there is still a large margin of growth in its study and implementation.

From a focus of Integrated Developmentthe rural environment is made up of diverse activities that support each other towards a common goal. This way, if power is the cultural capital of a territory may be contributing to the improvement of their quality of life and their environment in a sustainable way. For example, the generation of value added in goods and services that can be acquired by the territories with cultural identity

The music you can represent an element of a catalyst, facilitator, and of the social, economic, or human environment for its multifunctional capability. 

 The areas of use that has the music in social and economic aspects of the territory are multidiversos and are interconnected with one another. The use of the music, consciously or unconsciously, and his exploration area from a functional and not merely playful, it is as old as humanity itself.


You can find more information about culture, music, and development on the following sources of bibliographic information:

  • ATTALI, J. (1995) Noise. Essay on the political economy of music. Published by TWENTY-first Century. Madrid.
  • BOTTLE NICHOLAS, A. M. et al. (2014) The song as a resource for intercultural in the classroom elementary. Universitat de València.
  • FIELD SOLER, S. (2010) “Women and music. Obstacles overcome and ways ahead” Packages Feministes, 21(ISSN: 1139-1219), pp. 157-174. Disponible en:
  • DANHAUSER, A.-L. (1872) Music theory. Published by Ricordi Americana. Buenos Aires.
  • DÍAZ GONZÁLEZ, T. (2000) “culture as a strategic factor of rural development”, Journal of education, 322, pp. 69-88.
  • ESCOBAR, A. (2011) The invention of the Third World. Construction and deconstruction of development, Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. doi: 10.1088/1751-8113/44/8/085201.
  • FONTE, M. and RANABOLDO, C. (2007) “rural Development, territories and identities from Latin America”, Opera. RIMISP, pp. 9-31.
  • GALINDO MORALES, L. (2015) “gender Equity in the professional orchestras of Colombia Gender Equality in Professional Colombian Orchestras”, FOLIOS, 42, pp. 3-15.
  • TANGLE, M. (2010) “Culture and Development”, Culture and Development, (evolución y perspectivas), p. 30. Disponible en:
  • RANABOLDO, C. (2006) “the conceptual and methodological Bases for the design and conduct of case studies of areas with cultural identity”. RIMISP.
  • TOBAR, C. (2013) “Benefits of music in learning”, (2004), pp. 34-35.
  • UBILLA-BRAVO, G. (2017) “Evolution and reflections on the development and its relationship with the territory (Evolution and Reflections about the Development and his Relationship with the Territory)”, SSRN Electronic Journal, pp. 1-22.
  • UNESCO. Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2013) “Texts of the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions”.
  • UNESCO (1970) “Conferencia Intergubernamental sobre aspectos institucionales, administrativos y financieros de las Políticas Culturales”. Venecia. Disponible en:
  • UNESCO (2003) Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage”.